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examples and procedures of investigatory project in chemistry

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examples and procedures of investigatory project in chemistry

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  1. Guest24888312

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  4. muhammad rizwan
    The Dark Totie of FU have surfaced to help face Kenneth. They are bred leaders as they used to command great armies and creatures of power in the golden ages. As the threat of Kenneth grows ever nearer some have decided to return and help the citizens survive these troubling times. Others on the other hand have returned to seize the opportunity to gain power from the battles that are about to begin. Level Point Vitality Agility Strength Energy Basic Stat Total 7 26 20 20 26 104 Life Mana Life/Level Mana/Level Life/Vitality Mana/Energy 110 60 1 1 2 2 The Dark Lord enters combat brandishing his phenomenal charisma in the battlefield. He has the power to summon the spirits of his raven and steed to help him defeat his opponents. Another wielder of great power like the Jomar's Gladiators of MU, he can wield equipment and enter zones at 2/3rd less the requirement of other classes. He also has learned spells and techniques never before seen by the inhabitants of MU. In order to unlock the Dark Totie you must have a basic character that has achieved a level of 250. Calculation Formula for Dark Totie Max Damage Strenth ÷ 50 + Energy ÷ 100 Min Damage Strenth ÷ 70 + Energy ÷ 140 Defense Agility ÷ 70 Attack Speed Agility ÷ 100 Defense Success Rate (Level x 50) + [(Agility x 50) ÷ 20]+ Strength ÷ 60 + Leadership ÷ 100 Ability Gauge (AG) (Strenth x 0.20) + (Agility x 0.20) + (Vitality x 0.20) + (Energy x 0.150) + (Leadership x 0.30) Equippable Weapon Sets * Ogre Axe, Broad Sword, Ogre Axe, Kiss, Mace, Phantom Assassin, Evening Star, Triple Axe, Yasha, Tomahawk, Gladius, Flail, Sange, Viper Sword, Culling Blade, Arch Angel Equippable Armor Sets * Maputi Set, Katamtaman Set, Maitim Set Exclusive items for Dark Totie * Cape of Lord * Dark Totie Pets - Dark Obama and Dark Michael * Battle Scepter, Master Scepter, Great Scepter, Lord Scepter, Great Lord Scepter (pet attack improves when wielding scepters) * Light Plate Set, Adamantine Set, Dark Steel Set and Dark Master Set
  5. Guest20281155
    1) Battery life Problem Statement The problem is: Which battery lasts the longest out of four different brands, Duracell, Energizer, Eveready and Rayovac? Hypothesis We think that Duracell will last the longest because their advertising claims that no other battery "beats the copper top." Materials Four of the same type, size and brand flashlights. Two D-size batteries from each of the following brands: Duracell Energizer Eveready Rayovac Two other D-size batteries to test each flashlight and bulb before starting tests. Procedure We tested each of the flashlights by using the two test batteries. We then labelled each flashlight with the battery brand name and put the different batteries in each marked flashlight. Before going to bed we will turn on all the flashlights at the same time and left them on overnight. We'll note down the time that the flashlights were turned on. When we wake up we will watch the flashlights until they go out and will record the time. If one goes out before we wake up, we will get two more of the same type of battery and watch it during the day. Variables Our variable is the different brand of batteries. The controlled condition is the same type of flashlights. Results Our experiment showed that Rayovac outlasted all of the other batteries we tested by at more than two hours. The Eveready battery, which is a regular, non-alkaline battery, lasted only 6 hours and 35 minutes. The Duracell lasted 15 hours. The Energizer lasted 22 hours and 15 minutes. The Rayovac lasted 24-1/2 hours. The Eveready flashlight went out during the night, so we had to replace the batteries and watch it during the daytime. It was the only non-alkaline battery. We observed that when it was going dead, it got very dim. The alkaline batteries just went out completely. Conclusion We rejected our hypothesis that Duracell would last the longest. We came to this conclusion because our data show that Rayovac lasted longer than Duracell. This also proves that even though batteries may be more expensive (like the Duracell was), you might not be paying for a better battery. We do suggest that further testing be done, due to a few errors made during the experiment. Some flashlights were accidentally dropped, which could have caused differences in the results. The expiration dates of the batteries were not all the same (there was a difference of a few months); so some batteries may not have been as "fresh" as the newer ones. 2) Electro magnet Required: Thin wire A long nail = 10p is a good size (10P = 10-penny - 3-inches, the size of the nail *) Two 1.5 volt D-cell batteries, AND/OR a 12-volt lantern battery Wire cutter Masking tape A "knife" switch – you should be able to find this in a hobby shop, electronic supply or a hardware store. Get a DC (direct current) switch ** Electrical tape Some paper clips Procedure: Wrap the wire that has been stripped bare very tightly around the nail - at least 50 times. Cut the wire leaving a few inches of wire at each end. Tape down the end of the wire from the top of the nail to the negative pole of the battery. Make sure the wire is touching the battery end. Open the knife switch and connect the wire from the bottom end of the nail to the terminal on the knife switch. Cut another short piece of wire and tape the wire to the positive pole of the battery. connect the wire from the battery to other terminals on the knife switch. Close the circuit by closing the knife switch. When you do that, you create a circuit of electricity that passes through the wire round around the nail. Touch the point of the nail to a couple of paper clips and watch what happens. Conclusion: When the electric current passes through the wire round around the nail, it creates a magnetic field that reaches out in expanding circles. When a wire carrying electricity is twisted into a coil, it is called a solenoid. The magnetic field twists with the coiled wire, causing the magnetic field lines to concentrate inside the coil. This creates a powerful magnetic effect inside the coil called an electromagnet. The magnetic field inside the coil causes the tiny magnetic fields in the metal of the nail to be aligned in one direction (all the north poles point the same way). These little fields all pointing in the same direction add to the coil and make the magnet strong enough to pick up some objects. How many paper clips can you pick up by the electromagnet? What would happen if you used two batteries and connected them together (make sure you connect the positive to the negative poles if you're using the two batteries)? Try to see how many paper clips you can pick up. Now, try using the nine-volt battery. (Connect the positive and negative terminals like on the regular batteries.) How many paper clips can you pick up? Is there any relationship between the voltage of the batteries and the number of clips you can pick up? * WHAT DOES "PENNY" NAIL MEAN? The term penny (like 10p) originated in England many years ago. Ten penny, four penny, etc., nails got their names from the fact that one hundred nails of that size cost ten pence, four pence, etc. Today penny represents the definite length of a nail measured from the head to the tip of the point. The term penny is still shown by using the English Pence sign p. ** An inexpensive ($2.99) knife switch can be found at Radio Shack (Catalog #: 275-1537) with s***w terminals and for low-power use. 3) H2O Electrolysis Electricity is "created" when certain chemicals react together. We use chemically- made electricity to power many machines from flashlights to a watch or sometimes a car. Yes, there are cars that run on electricity! The devices that store electricity are called batteries. Electricity can also be used to produce chemical changes. Water is a simple chemical made from two gases -- hydrogen and oxygen. Every molecule of water has two atoms of hydrogen for every atom of oxygen. H2O is the chemical formula for a molecule of water. If an electrical current is passed through water between electrodes (the positive and minus poles of a battery), the water is split into its two parts: oxygen and hydrogen. This process is called electrolysis and is used in industry in many ways, such as making metals like aluminum. If one of the electrodes is a metal, it will become covered or plated with any metal in the solution. This is how objects are silverplated. You can use electricity to split hydrogen gas out of the water similar to the process called electrolysis. Try This! Require: A 9 volt battery Two regular number 2 pencils (remove eraser and metal part on the ends) Salt Thin cardboard Electrical wire Small glass Water Procedure: Sharpen each pencil at both ends. Cut the cardboard to fit over glass. Push the two pencils into the cardboard, about an inch apart. Dissolve about a teaspoon of salt into the warm water and let sit for a while. The salt helps conduct the electricity better in the water. Using one piece of the electrical wire, connect one end on the positive side of the battery and the other to the black graphite (the "lead" of the pencil) at the top of the sharpened pencil. Do the same for the negative side connecting it to the second pencil top. Place the other two ends of the pencil into the salted water. Conclusion: As the electricity from the battery passes through and between the electrodes (the pencils), the water splits into hydrogen and chlorine gas, which collect as very tiny bubbles around each pencil tip. Hydrogen collects around the cathode and the chlorine gas collects around the anode. How can you get chlorine from H2O? Good question! Sometimes in experiments, a secondary reaction takes place. This is what happens in this experiment. Oxygen is not given off in this experiment. That's because the oxygen atoms from the water combine in the liquid with the salt to form hydroxyl ions. Salt's chemical formula is NaCl - sodium chloride. The chlorine gas is from the chloride in the salt. The oxygen in the hydroxl ions stay in the solution. So, what is released in this reaction is not oxygen but is chlorine gas that collects around the pencil tip. Around the other pencil is hydrogen gas. In real electrolysis systems, a different solution is used, and higher levels of electricity help to split the water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen without this secondary reaction. 4) Peanut power: Requires : A small bag/can of unsalted, shelled peanuts A cork A needle A large metal juice or coffee can A small metal can (like a soup can) with paper label removed A can opener A hammer A large nail A metal BBQ skewer (like the kind for kebobs) About a cup of water A thermometer Some matches or a lighter (ask an adult for help here) A piece of paper and pencil to record your observations Procedure: Carefully push the eye of the needle into the smaller end of the cork. Then gently push the pointed end of the needle into a peanut. If you push too hard the peanut will break. If it does, use another peanut. It's also better to have the peanut at a slight angle. Remove the two ends of the large juice can with the can opener. Be careful as the top's and bottom's edge can be sharp! Using the hammer and nail, have an adult punch holes around the bottom of the large can. These are air holes that will make the can act like a chimney and will contain the heat energy focussing it on the smaller can. Remove the top end of the small can (if it is not already removed). Using the hammer and nail, punch two holes near the top of the small can exactly opposite each other. Slide the BBQ skewer through the holes of the small can. Pour 1/2 cup of water into the small can and let it sit for an hour. This will allow the water to be heated or cooled to room temperature. (Munch on some peanuts while you're waiting.) Put the thermometer into the water and record the temperature on your paper. Place the cork and peanut on a nonflammable surface. Light the peanut with a match or lighter. Have an adult help you! Sometimes the peanut can be difficult to light, so the lighter may be easier to use. As soon as the peanut has caught fire, immediately place the large can around the nut. Balance the skewer holding the small can on the top of the large can. Allow the nut to burn for several minutes or until it goes out. Stir the water with the thermometer and record the temperature again. Concludion: The chemical energy stored in the peanut was released and converted into heat energy. The heat energy raised the temperature of the water in the small can. Try a couple of other experiments using different kinds of peanuts or other kinds of nuts. Try: Raw peanuts Dry roasted peanuts Vacuum-packed peanuts Freeze-dried peanuts Try cashew nuts, Brazil nuts, pecans, walnuts or other kinds of nuts. (Do they contain more energy than the peanut? Why or why not?) You might want to try more than one peanut. You'll need extra needles. Use four or five peanuts to heat the water. Is the temperature four or five times higher? Energy is measured in a unit called the Btu, which stands for British thermal unit. A Btu is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. Using math, you can figure out how many Btu are in the one peanut. (The plural or Btu is still Btu, not Btus.) First you'll need to find out how heavy 1/2 cup of water is. Use a small scale and weigh the small can with nothing in it. Then weigh the can with 1/2 cup of water in it. That will tell you how much the water weighs. Then, knowing how hot the water was, how many degrees its temperature was raised, you can figure out roughly how many Btu are in the peanut. (PLEASE NOTE: This will be an approximate figure because the entire peanut will not be completely burned...there is still some chemical energy left inside the partially burned peanut. In order to measure the heat energy exactly, you would need to use a sophisticated piece of machinery called a "calorimeter".) For example: If the water weighed four ounces (1/4 of a pound), one Btu would raise the water temperature 4 degrees Fahrenheit. So, if your water temperature increased by 10 degrees (70 degrees at room temperature to 80 degrees), 10 divided by 4 would mean the peanut contained approximately 2.5 Btu. This is only an example of the math and will not be the same as your calculations. One Btu equals approximately: One blue-tip kitchen match 0.252 kilogram Calories (food calories) 1000 Btu equal approximately: One average candy bar (252 kilogram Calories) One hour of bicycling 4/5 of a peanut butter and jelly sandwich NOTE: You may see Btu defined as 252 calories. These are International Table calories which are equal to 1000 of the "Calories" or "kilocalories" we use for measuring food energy.
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  8. Guest19460170
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  10. Guest17607180
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  11. Guest14614755
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