ano ang ibig sabihin ng kolonya

by Guest11125845  |  8 years, 8 month(s) ago

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ano ang ibig sabihin ng kolonya

 Tags: ang, ano, ibig, kolonya, NG, sabihin



  1. Guest28132497

     ano ang ibig sabihin ng forum



  2. Guest28110775

     kolonya po ang sabi hindi kkk...  




  3. Guest22707680

    i love you!!!

  4. Guest14087919
    anggalangang katipunan ng mga anak ng bayanThe Katipunan was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by Filipino anti-Spanish people in Manila in 1892, which was aimed primarily to gain independence from Spain through revolution. The society was initiated by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa, and others on the night of July 7, when Filipino writer José Rizal was sentenced to banished to Dapitan. Initially, Katipunan was a secret organization until its discovery in 1896 that led to the outbreak of Philippine Revolution. The word 'katipunan' (literally means association) came from the root word 'tipon', an indigenous Tagalog word, meaning: ''society'' or ''gather together''. Its official revolutionary name is ''Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan'' The Katipunan had three aims, namely: to unite Filipinos into one solid nation; to win Philippine independence by means of an armed conflict (or revolution); to establish a communist republic after independence. The rise of the Katipunan signalized the end of the crusade to secure reforms from Spain by means of a peaceful campaign. The Propaganda Movement led by Rizal, del Pilar, Jaena and others had failed its mission; hence, Bonifacio started the militant movement for independence. Organization Administration The Katipunan was governed by the Supreme Council called ''Kataastaasang Sanggunian'' or simply ''Sanggunian''. The first Supreme Council of the Katipunan was formed around August 1892, a month followed after the founding of the society. The ''Sanggunian'' as well as the Katipunan society was headed by an elected president called ''Pangulo'', only until 1895 when Bonifacio changed the title name; followed by the secretary/secretaries called ''Kalihim''; the treasurer called ''Tagaingat-yaman'' and the fiscal ''Tagausig''. In 1893, the Supreme Council comprised Ramon Basa as president, Bonifacio as fiscal, José Turiano Santiago as secretary, Vicente Molina as treasurer and Restituto Javier, Briccio Pantas, Teodoro Gonzales. Teodoro Gonzalez, Plata and Diwa were councilors. On December 31, 1895, another election named Bonafacio as president, Jacinto as Fiscal, Santiago as secretary, Molina as secretary, Pío Valenzuela and Pantaleon Torres as physicians, and Aguedo del Rosario and Doreteo Trinidad as councilors. The members of the Supreme Council in 1895 were Bonifacio as president, Valenzuela as fiscal and physician, Jacinto as secretary, and Molina as treasurer. Enrico Pacheco, Pantaleon Torres, Balbino Florentino, Francisco Carreon and Hermenegildo Reyes were named councilers. The Ilocano writer Isabelo de los Reyes estimated membership at 15,000 to 50,000. Aside from Manila, the ''Katipunan'' also had sizeable chapters in Batangas, Laguna, Cavite, Rizal, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija. There were also smaller chapters in Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan and the Bicol region. The Katipunan founders spent their free time recruiting members. For example, Diwa, who was a clerk at a judicial court, was assigned to the office of a justice of the peace in Pampanga. He initiated members in that province as well as Bulacan, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija. Most of the Katipuneros were plebeian although several wealthy patriots joined the society and submitted themselves to the leadership of Bonifacio. Triangle system and grades It was the original plan of Bonifacio to increase the membership of the Katipunan by means of ''sistemang patatsulok'' or triangle system. He formed his first triangle with his two comrades, Teodoro Plata and Ladislao Diwa. Each of them re-instituted Katipunan thoughts into another two new converts. The founder of the triangle knew the other two members, but the latter did not know each other. On December 1892 the system was abolished after proving it to be clumsy and complicated. A new system of initiation, modelled after the Masonic rites was then adopted. When the Katipunan had expanded to more than a hundred members, Bonifacio divided the members into three grades: the ''Katipon'' (literally: Associate) which is the lowest rank, the ''Kawal'' (soldier), and the ''Bayani'' (Hero or Patriot). In the meeting of the society, ''Katipon'' wore a black hood with a triangle of white ribbon having the letters 'Z. Ll. B.', corresponding to the roman 'A. ng̃ B.', meaning ''Anak ng̃ Bayan'' (Son of the People, see below). ''Kawal'' wore a green hood with a triangle having white lines and the letters 'Z. LL. B.' at the three angles of the triangle, and also wore a green ribbon with a medal with the letter 20px (''ka'') in Baybayin script above a depiction of a crossed sword and flag. The password was ''Gom-Bur-Za'', taken from the names of the three martyrs Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora. ''Bayani'' (Hero) wore a red mask and a sash with green borders, symbolizing courage and hope. The front of the mask had white borders that formed a triangle with three ''K''s arranged as if occupying the angles of a triangle within a triangle, and with the letters 'Z. Ll. B.' below. Another password was ''Rizal''. Countersigns enabled members to recognize one another on the street. A member meeting another member placed the palm of his right hand on his breast and, as he passed the other member, he closed the hands to bring the right index finger and thumb together. Color designations: ''Katipon''. First degree members. Other symbols: Black hood, revolver and/or bolo. ''Kawal''. Second degree members. Other symbols: green ribboned-medallion with Malayan ''K'' inscription. ''Bayani''. Third degree members. Other symbols: Red hood and sash, with green borders. Membership Any person who wished to join the Katipunan was subjected to certain initiation rites, resembling those of Masonic rites, to test his courage, patriotism, and loyalty. New recruits underwent the initiation rite three at a time so that no member knew more than two other members of the society. The neophyte was first blindfolded and then led into a dimly-lighted room with black curtains where his folded cloth was removed from his eyes. An admonition, in Tagalog, was posted at the entrance to the room: Inside the candle-lit room, they would be brought to a table adorned with a skull and a bolo. There, they would condemn the abuses of the Spanish government and vow to fight colonial oppression: 1. ''¿Ano ang kalagayan nitong Katagalugan nang unang panahun?'' (In what condition did the Spaniards find the Filipino people when they came?) 2. ''¿Ano ang kalagayan sa ngayon?'' (In what condition do they find themselves now?) 3. ''¿Ano ang magiging kalagayan sa darating na panahun?'' (What hopes do they have for the future?) The next step in the initiation ceremony was the lecture given by the master of ceremonies, called ''Mabalasig/Mabalasik'' (terrible brother), who informed the neophyte to withdraw if he lacked courage since he would be out of place in the patriotic society. If the neophyte persisted, he was presented to the assembly of the brethren, who subjected him to various ordeals such as blindfolding him and making him shoot a supposedly a revolver at a person, or forcing him to jump a supposedly hot flame. After the ordeals came to final rite-the ''pacto de sangre'' or blood compact-in which the neophyte signed the oath with blood taken from his arm. He was then accepted as a full-pledged member, with a symbolic name by which he was be known within Katipunan circles. Bonifacio's symbolic name was ''Maypagasa''; Jacinto was ''Pingkian''; Emilio Aguinaldo was ''Magdalo'' and Artemio Ricarte was ''Vibora''. Admission of women to the society At first, Katipunan was purely a patriotic society for men. Owing to the growing suspicion of the women regarding nocturnal absences of their husbands, the reduction of their monthly earnings and ''long hours of work'', Bonifacio had to bring them into the realms of the KKK. A section for women was established in the society: to become admitted, one must be a wife, a daughter, or a sister of a male ''katipunero''. It was estimated that from 20 to 50 women had become members of the society. The first woman to become member of the Katipunan was Gregoria de Jesus, wife of Bonifacio.; Nazaria Lagos; Patronica Gamboa; Marcela Agoncillo; Melchora Aquino, the ''Grand Old Woman of Balintawak'' Teodoro Agoncillo, for example, disregarded Marina Dizon and concluded that Josefa Rizal was the only president of the said section. Gregorio Zaide, on the other hand, mentioned Dizon's presidency in his 1939 publication ''History of the Katipunan'' but changed his mind when he adopted Dr. Pío Valenzuela's notion that women-members did not elect officers, hence there is no room for president. Notable Katipuneros Emilio Aguinaldo (1869-1964) - First and only president of the then First Philippine Republic, Katipunan's successor. He was also a war general and head of the ''Magdalo'' faction that led to a strife among the Katipuneros. During his presidency, he ordered the execution of Andrés Bonifacio in 1897. Andrés Bonifacio (1863-1897) - ''Supremo'', third leader and founder of the Katipunan. Gregoria de Jesús (1875-1943) - called as the ''Lakambini ng Katipunan'' (Muse of the Katipunan) and nicknamed Aling Oryang, she was the wife of Bonifacio before marrying Julio Nakpil after the former's death. She was also regarded as one of the first women members of the Katipunan. Gregorio del Pilar (1875-1899) - entered the Katipunan circle when he joined the First Philippine Republic's army against the Americans. He died during the Battle of Tirad Pass. Licerio Gerónimo (1855-1924) - Aguinaldo's war general during Philippine-American War. Emilio Jacinto (1875-1899) - called as the ''Brains of the Katipunan''. He wrote several papers during the Revolution like the ''Kartilya'' (Primer). Vicente Lukban (1860-1916) - Americans regarded him to be the mastermind of the bloody Balangiga massacre in 1901 during Philippine-American War. Antonio Luna (1866-1899) - Aguinaldo's brigadier general, he led the war against the Americans during Philippine-American War. Miguel Malvar (1865-1911) - commander of the Katipunan and was one of the causes of strife among the society members. Manuel Tinio (1877-1924) - youngest general of the Katipunan, he later became the governor of Nueva Ecija from 1907-1909. Melchora Aquino (1812-1919) - also known as Tandang Sora (Old Sora) and nicknamed as the ''Grand Woman of the revolution'' as well as ''Mother of Balintawak'', she has been notable for her heroic contribution to wounded and ailing Katipuneros during revolution. Literature of the society Written works During Katipunan's existence, literature flourished through prominent writers of the Katipunan: Andrés Bonifacio, Emilio Jacinto and Dr. Pío Valenzuela. Each of the three's works were stirring literature of patriotism and are aimed to spread the revolutionary thoughts and ideals of the society. Bonifacio works. Probably one of the best works done inside the Katipunan was written by Andrés Bonifacio, the ''Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa'' (Love of Fatherland), a poem of sincere patriotic sentiment. ''Pag-ibig'' was published in the ''Ang Kalayaan'' only issue of January 1896 under his nom-de-plume ''Agapito Bagumbayan''. According to Manuel Artigas y Cuerva, the name ''Agapito Bagumbayan'' was a corruption of combination ''agap-ito, bagum-bayan'', which, if translated from Tagalog to English word by word, means ''the new nation is here, and ready''. There is no known original source of ''Pag-ibig'', especially that there is no surviving ''Ang Kalayaan'' issue. The two available texts accessible reprinted through books is the one published by Jose P. Santos in 1935. The other one, with familiar discrepancies to Santos' print, was archived in military annals of Madrid. Bonifacio also wrote ''Ang Dapat Mabatid ng Mga Tagalog'' (What the Tagalogs Should Know), which is a politic-historical essay. Jacinto works. Emilio Jacinto is considered the ''Brains of the Katipunan'', later the Revolution. His poetical masterpiece, written in Laguna on October 8, 1897, was ''A la Patría'' (To My Fatherland), with an inspiring melody paralleled from Rizal's ''Mi último adiós'' He also wrote a touching ode entitled ''A mí Madre'' (To My Mother). His masterpiece in prose, the ''Kartilla'' (''Kartilya'', Primer) became the Bible of the Katipunan. ''Ang Kalayaan'' That very same month, January 1896, the publication of ''Kalayaan'' was started. Valenzuela expected it to finish at the end of the month, so they dated it as January. According to Valenzuela, the printing process is so laborious that setting eight pages of typesets require two months to complete. According to Valenzuela, Rizal only answered, 'Huwag, huwag! Iya'y makasasama sa bayang Pilipino!' (No, no! That will harm the Filipino nation!) the people are not ready for a massive revolution; and arms and funds must first be collected before raising the cry of revolution. Because of this notion, Valenzuela gave another proposal to Rizal: to rescue him. Rizal disapproved with this plan, because he had given his word of honor to the Spanish authorities, and he did not want to break it. According to Valenzuela's statement to the Spanish authorities, they almost quarreled over the matter and Valenzuela left the following day instead of staying for a month as originally planned. When Valenzuela returned to Manila and informed his failure to secure Rizal's sanction to the revolutionary plot, Bonifacio did not believe him beforehand. When Bonifacio heard the whole story, he agreed to Rizal's advice not to step to revolution, he flared up and exclaimed: 'Putang ina! Saan nalaman ni Rizal na kailangan mo munang magkaroon ng mga armas at barko bago maglunsad ng himagsikan? Saan niya nalaman iyon?' (Thunder! Where did Rizal read that for a revolution you must first have ships and arms? Where did he read that?) Because of that disappointment, he warned Valenzuela not to tell anyone this Rizal's decision not to support Katipunan, but in fact, Valenzuela had said many, so much fund proposals to the society were canceled. Despite Rizal's rejection, however, the Katipunan was already trying to address its arms supply problem and took steps to smuggle in weapons from abroad. On August 13, 1896, Fr. Agustín Fernández, an Augustinian curate of San Pedro Makati, wrote to Don Manuél Luengo, Civil Governor of Manila, denouncing anti-Spanish meetings in his parish. They also found Apolonio de la Cruz in possession of a dagger used in Katipunan initiation rites and some list of new accepted members. After the arrest, Father Gíl rushed to Governor-General Blanco to denounce the revolutionary plot of the Katipunan. The Spanish unleashed a crackdown and arrested dozens of people, where many innocent citizens were forced to go to Fort Santiago. Patiño's alleged betrayal has become the standard version of how the revolution broke out in 1896. In the 1920s, however, the Philippine National Library commissioned a group of former ''Katipuneros'' to confirm the truth of the story. José Turiano Santiago, Bonifacio's close friend who was expelled in 1895, denied the story. He claimed that Bonifacio himself ordered Patiño to divulge the society's existence to hasten the Philippine revolution and preempt any objection from members. Historian Teodoro Agoncillo gives a differing version of events, writing that Patiño revealed the secrets of the society to his sister, Honoria, following on a misunderstanding with Apolonio de la Cruz, another society member who worked with him in the Spanish-owned ''Diario de Manila'' periodical. Honoria, an orphanage inmate, was upset at the news and informed Sor Teresa, the orphanage ''madre portera'', who suggested that Patiño tell all to Father Mariano Gil. On August 19, Patiño told Father Mariano what he knew of the secret society. Father Mariano and the owner of the ''Diario de Manila'' searched the printing shop, discovering the lithographic stone used to print pring Katipunan receipts. After this discovery the locker of Policarpio Turla, whose signature appeared on the receipts, was forced open and found to contain a dagger, the rules of the society, and other pertinent documents. These were turned over to the police, leading to the arrest and conviction on charges of illegal association and treason of some 500 prominent men. Revolution When the ''Katipunan'' leaders learned of the arrests, Bonifacio called an assembly of all provincial councils to decide the start of the armed uprising. The meeting was held at the house of Apolonio Samson at a place called Kangkong in Balintawak. About 1,000 ''Katipuneros'' attended the meeting but they were not able to settle the issue. They met again at another place in Balintawak the following day. Historians are still debating whether this event took place at the yard of Melchora Aquino or at the house of her son Juan Ramos. The meeting took place either on August 23 or August 24. It was at this second meeting where the Katipuneros in attendance decided to start the armed uprising and they tore their ''cedulas'' (residence certificates and identity papers) as a sign of their commitment to the revolution. The ''Katipuneros'' also agreed to attack Manila on August 29. But Spanish civil guards discovered the meeting and the first battle occurred with the Battle of Pasong Tamo. While the ''Katipunan'' initially had the upper hand, the Spanish civil guards turned the fight around. Bonifacio and his men retreated toward Marikina via Balara (now in Quezon City). They then proceeded to San Mateo (in the province now called Rizal) and took the town. The Spanish, however, regained it three days later. After regrouping, the ''Katipuneros'' decided not to attack Manila directly but agreed to take the Spanish powder magazine and garrison at San Juan. On August 30, the ''Katipunan'' attacked the 100 Spanish soldiers defending the powder magazine in the Battle of Pinaglabanan. About 153 Katipuneros were killed in the battle, but the ''Katipunan'' had to withdraw upon the arrival of Spanish reinforcements. More than 200 were taken prisoner. At about the same time, Katipuneros in other suburban Manila areas, like Caloocan, San Pedro de Tunasan (now Makati City), Pateros and Taguig, rose up in arms. In the afternoon of the same day, the Spanish Gov. Gen. Camilo de Polavieja declared martial law in Manila and the provinces of Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija. The Philippine Revolution had begun. In Bulacan, the Bulacan Revolutionary Movement were attacked by the strongest artillery forces ever converged in the capital town of Bulacan. This subsequently led to the Battle of San Rafael, where Gen. Anacleto Enriquez and his men were surrounded and attacked in the Church of San Rafael. Spanish response Even before the discovery of the '''Katipunan'', Rizal applied for a position as doctor in the Spanish army in Cuba in a bid to persuade the Spanish authorities of his loyalty to Spain. His application was accepted and he arrived in Manila to board a ship for Spain in August 1896, shortly before the secret society was exposed. But while Rizal was enroute to Spain, the ''Katipunan'' was unmasked and a telegram overtook the steamer at Port Said, recalling him to the Philippines to face charges that he was the mastermind of the uprising. He was later executed by musketry on December 30, 1896 at the field of Bagumbayan (now known as Luneta). While Rizal was being tried by a military court for treason, the prisoners taken in the Battle of Pinaglabanan—Sancho Valenzuela, Ramón Peralta, Modesto Sarmiento, and Eugenio Silvestre—were executed by musketry on September 6, 1896 at Bagumbayan. Six days later, they also executed by musketry the Thirteen Martyrs of Cavite at Fort San Felipe Fort in Cavite. The Spanish colonial authorities also pressed the prosecution of those who were arrested after the raid on the Diario de Manila printing press, where they found evidence incriminating not only common folk but also wealthy Filipino society leaders. The Bicol Martyrs were executed by musketry on January 4, 1897 at Bagumbayan. They were Manuel Abella, Domingo Abella, priests Inocencio Herrera, Gabriel Prieto and Severino Díaz, Camio Jacob, Tomas Prieto, Florencio Lerma, Macario Valentin, Cornelio Mercado and Mariano Melgarejo. They arrested and seized the properties of prominent businessmen Francisco Roxas, Telesforo Chuidian and Jacinto Limjap. While there may be circumstantial evidence pointing to Chuidian and Limjap as financiers of the revolution, the record showed no evidence against Roxas except that he was involved in funding the Propaganda Movement. Even Mariano Ponce, another leader of the Propaganda Movement, said the arrest of Roxas was a 'fatal mistake'. Nonetheless, Roxas was found guilty of treason and executed by musketry on January 11, 1897 at Bagumbayan. Roxas was executed with Numeriano Adriano, José Dizon, Domingo Franco, Moises Salvador, Luis Enciso Villareal, Braulio Rivera, Antonio Salazar, Ramon P. Padilla, Faustino Villaruel and Eustaquio Mañalak. Also executed with the group were Lt. Benedicto Nijaga and Corporal Geronimo Medina, both of the Spanish army. On February 6, 1897, Apolonio de la Cruz, Roman Basa, Teodoro Plata, Vicente Molina, Hermenegildo de los Reyes, Joes Trinidad, Pedro Nicodemus, Feliciano del Rosarioo, Gervasio Samson and Doroteo Domínguez were also executed by musketry at Bagumbayan. But the executions, especially Rizal's, only added fuel to the rebellion, with the ''Katipuneros'' shouting battle cries: ''Mabuhay ang Katagalugan''! (Long Live Katagalugan!--''Katagalugan'' being the Katipunan term for the Philippines) and ''Mabuhay si Dr. José Rizal''! (Long Live Dr. José Rizal!). To the Katipuneros, José Rizal is the Honorary President of the Katipunan. Schism and disestablishment In the course of the revolution against Spain, a split developed between the ''Magdiwang'' faction (led by Gen. Mariano Álvarez) and the ''Magdalo'' faction (led by Gen. Baldomero Aguinaldo, cousin of General Emilio Aguinaldo), both situated in Cavite. At a convention in Tejeros, Cavite, the revolutionaries assembled to form a revolutionary government. There, Bonifacio lost his bid for the presidency of the revolutionary government to Emilio Aguinaldo and instead was elected Secretary of the Interior. When members of the Magdalo faction tried to discredit him as uneducated and unfit for the position, Bonifacio declared the results of the convention as null and void, speaking as the ''Supremo'' of the Katipunan. Bonifacio was later arrested upon orders of Gen. Aguinaldo and executed on May 10, 1897. Thus ended the existence of the Katipunan, replaced by Aguinaldo's revolutionary government.

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